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1 year ago

The soil was sampled in January and February to determine

The entire transect covers 500 m (away from the glacier front). At the 300 m point, soil samples with and without vegetation were collected at the same site, totaling eight soil samples with and eight soil samples without vegetation cover. These soil samples were air dried and passed through a sieve (2 mm) for GC/MS pyrolysis analyses. Soil subsamples of approximately 20 g were crushed in a mortar to pass a 250 μm mesh to determine total soil organic C, total N, labile C, and recalcitrant C.

1 year ago

Zhang et al proposed that three criteria should be considered

Many previously published reports have shown that Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb are indicator heavy metals in contaminated soils near highways (Chen et al., 2010, Wang et al., 2012, Yan et al., 2013 and Werkenthin et al., 2014). Therefore it SM-164 was speculated that Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb (related to factor 1) were derived from a similar source and might be related to anthropogenic inputs.
3.3. Relationship between heavy-metal contents in roadside soils and distance from the highway
The factor 1 scores (corresponding to Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) had significantly negative correlations with distance perpendicular to the highway, whereas the other two factors were not statistically significant (Table 4). The soil contents of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were among the five heavy metals significantly correlated with the distance from the highway (p < 0.01), indicating that the contents of these heavy metals in the topsoil along the Qinghai–Tibet highway were higher in samples taken nearer the road. Some studies have shown that the contents of traffic-related metals in topsoil decrease with increasing distance from the road edge ( Liu et al., 2009, Yan et al., 2013 and Werkenthin et al., 2014). These results support the suggestion that the contents of Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in soils were closely related to traffic.

1 year ago

The PCB concentrations found in Lerma River sediment samples showed

The PCB concentrations found in Lerma River DIDS samples showed only small variations with total values ranging from 54 to 124 μg·kg− 1. These sediments may be considered as contaminated according to EPA references values. These data were higher than the ones observed in other studies for similar ecosystems. Uncontaminated sediments usually contain concentrations as low as 3 μg·kg− 1 (Funil Reservoir — Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 2–19 μg·kg− 1 (Santana River — also Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Brito et al., 2005), 10 μg·kg− 1 (Yangtze River Estuary — China; Yang et al., 2012) and 21 μg·kg− 1 (Catalonia Basin — Spain; Peré-Trepat et al., 2006). Moderately and highly contaminated sediments may contain PCBs with concentrations ranging from 48–486 μg·kg− 1, as found in the cristae Zhujiang River, to 3 396 μg·kg− 1, measured in Macao harbor, the last ones in China (Fu et al., 2003), respectively.

1 year ago

Conclusions In summary we have reported the design and synthesis

Conclusions
In summary, we have reported the design and synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles with different types of oxygen vacancy defects by using NTA as precursor. The introduction of oxygen vacancies not only highly improve the intrinsic conductivity and lithium THZ1 diffusion, but also provide more physical space for Li-ion storage. As a result, the TiO2 nanoparticles containing oxygen vacancies exhibit superior electrochemical lithium storage properties as represented by a capacity of 148 mA h g−1 at a high rate of 10 C.

1 year ago

TMC647055 There are CO observation stations in

There are CO2 observation stations in the remote islands of the open oceans, such as the Mauna Loa Observatory (Fig. 1). The remote sites have the advantage of representing the continental scale of reference levels of trace gases. For example, the observed CO2 variation at the MLO site is co-influenced by both the Eurasian and the North American continents (Buermann et al., 2007 and Lintner et al., 2006).

1 year ago

Wild type zebrafish TU strain

In order to improve growth, larvae were then transferred to 3 and 10 L tanks from 12 dpf and 3 months post-fertilization (mpf) respectively. From anus latter stage, diet rations distributed were set at 2% of the total biomass. During the 9 months of dietary exposure, a distribution of non-contaminated food with living Artemia sp. nauplii (INVE, Belgium) was given in supplement once a day.

1 year ago

In May the plant adopted the lease model

3.3.2. The commission model: Tianhuangping model
In this Methimazole model, ownership is separated from operation. The operation of the PSH plant is assigned to the grid company. A small number of plants operate under this model. A typical example is the Tianhuangping Plant in Zhejiang Province. In 1998, Tianhuangping Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity Co. Ltd., the owner of the plant, entered into a commission agreement with the East China Grid Company (the ECGC), entrusting the ECGC with the daily operation of the PSH plant including production safety, electricity tariff scheme, equipment overhaul and maintenance, and purchase of spare parts. The output of the plant is dispatched by the ECGC and distributed to the three provinces and one municipality within the jurisdiction of the ECGC.
The two-part tariff regime, which has been applied to conditioned response plant ever since 2000, consists of a capacity tariff and a generation tariff (FIT). The capacity tariff (also called commission fee) paid to the PSH plant was set through negotiation between the plant and the ECGC. The Plant receives a capacity tariff of RMB 470/kW per year and a FIT of RMB 0.7915/kW h while paying RMB 0.3453/kW h to the grid company for pumping water [18].

1 year ago

The photocatalytic activity of the samples was

X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles were obtained at room temperature in a Bruker D8 diffractometer with a Sol-X MK-2461 dispersive detector, using Cu Kα filtered radiation (λ = 0.15418 nm) in the 2θ range 2–70° with a scanning rate of 1.5° min−1. The structural identification was performed by using the JCPDS cards [30]. Average crystal size (D) was calculated from the most intense diffraction peak (1 0 1) using the Scherrer’s equation [31]. Variable temperature XRD (VT–XRD) profiles were performed using an X’Pert Pro Panalytical diffractometer with Ni filtered Cu-Kα radiation and a xenon detector. To perform the high temperature experiments, an anton paar HTK120 heating stage was used, integrated with the Panalytical control software. The as-prepared powders were loaded onto an alumina heater stage. This heater enclosure was purged with air at a flow rate of 2 mL min−1. The sample was further heated at a rate of 10 °C min−1 up to a maximum of 800 °C. The sample was held at several target temperatures (each 100 °C) for up to 130 min. During skeletal system hold time, the sample temperature was maintained constant and XRD data were collected over the 2θ range 3–70° with a step size of 0.04° and a count time of 4 s.

1 year ago

Microstructure and chemical states Fig xA a TEM image

4a shows the FTIR spectra of methyl orange (curve I), In2S3 nanoparticles after mixing with MO aqueous solution (20 mg L−1) in the dark for 3 h at 30 °C (curve II), In2S3 nanoparticles after mixing with MO aqueous solution (20 mg L−1) in the dark for 3 h followed by irradiating under NIR light for 8 h (curve III) and pristine In2S3 nanoparticles (curve IV).

1 year ago

It can be seen that

It can be seen that the major contribution (>95%) of C1s component of untreated PP film surface exhibited C–C which decreased gradually with respect to gaseous plasma treatment in the order of UT < Ar < O2 < Air < Ar + O2, while the concentration polar function groups such as C–O, CO/O–C–O, O–CO–C increased in the same order of gaseous plasma treatment as shown in Fig. 4. The above changes may be attributed to argon plasma treatment which produces enormous amount of free radicals on the surface of PP film through breaking of hydrogen bonds in the polymer network. However, feeble amount of C–O groups are formed on the surface of PP film by the interaction of free radicals with oxygen species in the environment when exposed in air. In contrast, the mechanism of oxygen containing plasma effect differ exclusively from argon plasma treatment because oxygen plasma produces polar functional groups onto the surface without creation of much cross linked network which mean in situ surface AG 99 arises on the surface of PP films [37] and [38]. Furthermore, formation of polar functional groups on the surface of PP films by oxygen containing argon plasma (O2 + Ar) has involved different simultaneous processes which include both the cross linking and the surface oxidation. In this processes plasma particles are initially able to interact with the polymer surface which break the hydrogen bond and creates carbon radials on the surface and it is immediately reacted with neighboring polymer chain. Due to the interaction between the two carbon radicals from the adjacent chains, cross linked network is formed onto the PP film surface. At the same time, the free radicals also interact with oxygen atoms in the plasma leading to the formation of high dense of oxygen containing polar functional groups such as C–O, CO/O–C–O, O–CO/COO and O–CO–C on the polymer surface. Based on the above mechanism, Ar + O2 plasma treatment yield high dense of polar functional groups on the PP film surfaces [39]. In addition, similar mechanism occurred on the air plasma treated PP film surfaces. However, different oxygen and nitrogen species (NO, NO2, N2O) and charged species (NO+, O2+, O+) are involved to produce more amounts of polar functional groups on the surface of PP films during the air plasma treatment. Thus, our results clearly suggest the formation of polar functional groups such as C–O, CO/O–C–O, O–CO/COO, O–CO–C mainly depends upon the plasma forming gases. Air and Ar + O2 plasma treatment creates high dense of functional groups on the PP film surface compared with other plasma treatments [37] and [40].